Alicia DeVore

The dream of cultivating a lush, vibrant garden often feels just out of reach for many, hidden behind a daunting mountain of planning, labor, and uncertainty. I was no exception, on the brink of giving up my gardening aspirations many years ago, believing the effort outweighed the potential joy because of the failure of that first garden. 

However, my perspective shifted dramatically when I learned about 2 key principles that have been a straightforward guide for me in planning for seasonal gardening. This 2 step system was pivotal in transforming the ability to use the garden all year long. Let’s take a look at these two steps needed to create a plot plan for year-long growing.

Step 1:  Average Temperatures

First, understanding the climate in which you plan to garden is pivotal for setting the stage for a producing garden. The average temperature highs and lows for each month serve as a crucial guide, helping you to make informed decisions about what to plant and when. 

Gather Your Data

Start by visiting reputable weather and climate data sources such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or your national weather service website. These platforms offer detailed historical climate data, including monthly average temperatures across various locations.

Understand the Numbers

Once you’ve found the data for your area, take note of the average high and low temperatures for each month. These figures represent the typical maximum and minimum temperatures your garden environment will experience throughout the year. For instance, if you’re planning a garden in St. Louis, you’d find that January has an average low of 25°F and a high of 41°F (Weather Spark).

Consider Plant Hardiness Zones

In addition to average temperatures, familiarize yourself with the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone or your country’s equivalent gardening zone system. This can further refine your understanding of what perennial plants like fruit trees and berry bushes are most likely to thrive in your area.

I do not use hardiness zones to plan out when to grow my veggie garden. I’m in zone 9b and can not plant tomatoes until 6 weeks after the last frost for my tomatoes to thrive in my area of Northern California, which doesn’t happen until mid-May. But if I lived in Floriday, in a zone 9b, I would have planted my tomatoes in Feb. and enjoyed eating by May. 

The zones work best for perennial plants but not annual veggie gardens. It’s a good thing to know this!

Tips for Using This Information

  • Seasonal Planning: Use the temperature data to plan your gardening activities around the seasons. Cool-season crops can be planted in anticipation of lower temperatures, while warm-season crops should be timed to avoid frost.

  • Microclimate Considerations: Remember, your garden might have microclimates—smaller areas that differ in exposure, shade, or wind protection. Adjust your plans based on these micro-environmental factors.

  • Record Keeping: Start a garden journal. Record the actual temperatures each year alongside the planting, blooming, or harvesting times of your plants. This personal historical record can be invaluable for future garden planning.

By researching and understanding the average temperature highs and lows for different plants for each month, you’re laying the groundwork for a garden that aligns with the rhythms of the local climate. This knowledge not only optimizes your plant selection and planting schedule but also enhances your garden’s resilience and productivity.

Step 2: Uncover Your Garden’s Frost Dates for Smarter, Happier Planting

Once you’ve accomplished Step 1, understanding the average temperature highs and lows for each month, your next move is to pinpoint the first and last frost dates in your area. This step is crucial for gardeners because it essentially bookmarks the start and end of your main growing season, allowing you to strategically plan your planting schedule to avoid the risk of frost damage.

Finding First and Last Frost Dates

Conduct Online Research

Start by searching for frost date information specific to your region. Numerous gardening websites and climate data portals provide frost date charts and calculators based on geographical location. These resources compile historical weather data to give gardeners an estimated window for safe planting.

Understand the Data

Frost dates are typically presented as a range, indicating the average time frame in which the last frost occurs in spring and the first frost appears in fall. For example, if you’re in Zone 5, your last frost date might fall between April 7-30, and your first frost date could be around October 13-21. These dates serve as a guideline for when it’s generally safe to plant frost-sensitive crops outside.

Using Frost Dates in Your Garden Planning

Plan Your Planting Schedule

With the frost dates in hand, work backward from the last frost date to start seeds indoors or plan direct sowing after this date for warm-season crops. Similarly, ensure that your fall crops are planted in time to mature before the first frost date.

For example, I must start my broccoli and cabbage seeds in July to be ready to plant out in Mid-September, which is 6-8 weeks before the first frost. These seedlings need time to grow indoors and then time to grow outside before the cold comes to be able to continue growing after the frost. I make sure to add frost cloth so that the cold temperatures do not stop their growth, giving me an even longer growing season.

Choose the Right Plants

Select plant varieties that will thrive within your growing season’s timeframe. Some plants require a longer period free of frost, while others can tolerate cooler ground temperatures. Understanding your frost dates helps you make informed decisions about which plants are best suited for your garden.

Check out the backs of seed packets for information about what that seed can tolerate in temperatures.

Implement Protective Measures

Even with frost dates as a guide, unexpected cold snaps can occur. Be prepared to protect sensitive plants with frost cloths (as mentioned above), cold frames, or by moving containers indoors if a late spring or early fall frost is predicted.

Keep Records

Maintain a garden journal documenting when the actual first and last frosts occur each year in your garden, alongside planting and harvesting dates. Over time, this personal record can help you refine your planting schedule even further, tailored to your garden’s microclimate.

By diligently researching and applying the knowledge of first and last frost dates, you empower yourself to navigate the gardening season with confidence. This step, combined with an understanding of monthly temperature trends, forms a solid foundation for a productive and rewarding gardening experience.

Personal Insight

Now, speaking from experience, here’s gardening tips I wish I had known when I started a vegetable garden: the profound impact of understanding your garden’s climate through average temperatures and frost dates. 

My gardening journey began in Southern California, where the sun generously gave my garden warmth almost year-round for sun-loving plants. Gardening there felt straightforward, with a wide variety of plants thriving under the perpetual kiss of the sun. However, my move to Northern California, nestled in the foothills, introduced me to a world where seasons dramatically dictate the rhythm of life, including gardening.

Transitioning from the predictably warm Southern California to the seasonally diverse Northern California was like learning to garden on a different planet. Here, the dance of rain, hail, snow, and the hot summer sun choreographs the growth cycle. Initially, my gardening efforts met with frustration. Plants that flourished effortlessly before struggled or failed in their new environment. It was a humbling lesson in the importance of local climate knowledge.

Turning Point

The turning point came when I discovered the significance of tracking average temperature highs and lows, along with the first and last frost dates of my new home. These two gardening tips unlocked the mystery of successful vegetable gardening in a region where seasons hold sway. 

By aligning my planting schedule with the local climate’s weather patterns—sowing seeds after the last frost date of spring and harvesting before the first frost date of fall—I could finally use the growing conditions for a thriving garden. I learned to select plants suited for each season’s challenges and opportunities, from frost-hardy greens in the cooler months to heat-tolerant tomatoes in the blistering summer.

This newfound wisdom transformed my approach to gardening. No longer was I fighting against the elements; instead, I worked within the natural flow of the seasons. The result in following these best gardening tips? A vibrant, year-round garden full of vegetables produce fruit that reflected the unique beauty and diversity of Northern California’s climate.

Garden Tip

Here’s a small, personal tip that added immense value to my gardening practice: Keep a garden journal. Document everything from the day you plant, the weather conditions, successes, failures, and, most importantly, the actual first and last frost dates you observe. This record becomes a treasure trove of insights, helping you refine your gardening strategy year after year.

In essence, understanding your garden’s climate through average temperatures and frost dates isn’t just about avoiding mishaps; it’s about harmonizing with the environment to unlock the full potential of your green space. For anyone transitioning to a new climate or simply looking to deepen their gardening practice, these insights can be game-changers.

Conclusion on Gardening Tips

Follow these two gardening tips, and you’re fast on your way to achieving a thriving, productive garden that aligns beautifully with the rhythms of your local climate. Let’s quickly recap the main steps to ensure you’re set for success:

Step 1: Understand Your Climate for your Vegetable Garden

Dive into the average temperature highs and lows for each month in your area. This initial step is crucial as it lays the groundwork for selecting plants that will thrive in your specific conditions. By familiarizing yourself with the seasonal temperature trends, you can make informed decisions about what to plant and when, ensuring your garden is in harmony with the local environment.

Step 2: Know Your Frost Dates

Pinpointing the first and last frost dates in your region is your next pivotal move. These dates bookmark the beginning and end of your primary growing season, offering a clear timeline for planting. Understanding these dates allows you to schedule your gardening activities strategically, protecting your plants from frost damage and maximizing their growth period.

By embracing these two foundational steps, you equip yourself with the knowledge needed to navigate the gardening season with confidence. Whether you’re adjusting to a new climate or fine-tuning your approach in a familiar one, these insights are invaluable. They empower you to select the right plants for your garden’s unique conditions and time your planting perfectly, setting the stage for a lush, flourishing garden.

Start by researching the average temperatures and frost dates for your area. Use this information as a guide to plan your garden, choosing plants that are well-suited to your climate and timing your planting to work with, not against, the seasons. Remember, every successful garden begins with understanding best plants and respecting the natural environment in which they grow.

Your vegetable garden awaits for you to eat your own food like growing tomatoes from tomato plants. With these steps as your guide, you’re well on your way to growing a garden full sun, that brings joy, beauty, and bounty throughout the year.

I have something special for you….

Want to delve deeper on the fast track to growing a garden with success? Check out the 3-Part Know Your Seasons Bootcamp below which will help you know what garden vegetables to grow and when with more insider tips and detailed instructions.


What kind of potting soil should I use for my garden?

For your garden, it’s best to use high-quality potting soil that is well-draining, nutrient-rich soil, and rich in organic matter. Look for potting soil that is specifically formulated for the types of plants you are growing, as some plants may have special requirements.

I don’t recommend fresh manure as it needs to age, so make sure your source for compost for your soil is a good source with no pesticides to harm you or your garden.

Will raised garden beds work to plant in or a container gardening be better for a small space?

Both a raised bed or garden bed and container gardening can be effective for small spaces. A raised bed is great for organizing your garden and can improve soil conditions, while containers offer flexibility and control over soil and moisture. The choice depends on your specific space constraints and gardening goals. Containers might be more suitable if you have very limited space or want the ability to easily move your plants.

Edible plants that you can grow include veggies, fruits, and herbs. You can also add flowers as companion planting to help protect and bring more pollinators to your garden. Many native plants grow well, but may not be edible. Many people like to leave some fruit on the vines for wildlife, this is called wildlife gardening. I have a gate around my garden to discourage pests and critters because I want to experience the harvest of food with veggies and fruits.

What are some things that a beginner can grow?

Start small by growing lettuce, flowers, and herbs. Get used to watering, adding compost, and using well-drained soil, in a square-foot space. Then the next season, add more to your garden. As a general rule, you have more experience and with that small space and are not ready to head start more in a sunny spot.

Before you know it, you will have a green thumb and be able to grow most vegetables with no trouble at all. Check out the Green Thumb Toolkit ebook for FREE and start using these two steps for a successful garden plot plan.

Other Informative Gardening Blog Posts:

Use These Top Essential Gardening Tips to Ensure Success

Unlock Your Garden Potential with One Simple Achievable Step

Unlock the Secrets of Successful Gardening by Using the USDA Hardiness Zones

4 Part-Simple Garden Guide to Feed Your Family and Save Money

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About the Author

Alicia has been teaching her whole life from elementary teacher to workshops for beginning gardeners.  Go HERE to read Alicia's story into gardening from plant killer to pro grower and garden coach.  If you want to send Alicia a quick message, then use her contact page HERE.

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